Monday, May 25, 2020

Aristotle s Ideas And Philosophies Of Aristotle Essay

Frequently discussed and debated are the ideas and philosophies of Aristotle. Larger than life, Aristotle had substantial influence on the formation and methodology of science as a whole, as well as specific disciplines. Many of his theories were well beyond the knowledge of ancient Greece (or what they thought they knew), and only in recent history has the science community begun to discover that many of Aristotle’s theories were actually quite close to reality. In addition, many of his theories brought questions to light that are still being considered and debated today. For example, one source contrasts Aristotle’s theories about when life begins to recent research on embryogenesis (Dunstan, 1988). From animal behavior to medicine, ethics and philosophy to theorizing on when life begins, Aristotle left a significant mark on what we call science. The first work examined was written by J.G. Lennox, who is a Professor of History and Philosophy of Science and Director of the Center for Philosophy of Science at the University of Pittsburgh. According to his biography, he focuses especially on Aristotle and Charles Darwin. He has authored and edited several volumes. This article is Lennox’s response to an article written by Geoffrey Lloyd, who holds an opposing viewpoint. Regardless, he work corresponds directly to the overall point at hand: Aristotle’s long standing and ongoing influence in the scientific community. In his introduction, Lennox discusses how in the 4thShow MoreRelatedAristotle s Realism Philosophy And Philosophy1590 Words   |  7 PagesAristotle’s Realism Philosophy Realism is an educational philosophy; furthermore it is a teaching that stresses knowledge that develops from one s own my opinion this is great idea for educational philosphy, because it shows that sense deveolpement is the realest possible learning to have. Under this philosophy the idea exists that there is a real world not constructed by human minds, that can be known by one s own mind. It is through experiencing the world around everyone in whichRead MoreAristotle s Contributions Of Aristotle931 Words   |  4 PagesBiography of Aristotle Aristotle Headshot Aristotle was born in 384 BC, in Stagira, near Macedonia at the northern end of the Aegean Sea. His father, Nicomachus, was the family physician of King Amyntas of Macedonia. It is believed that Aristotle s ancestors had been the physicians of the Macedonian royal family for several generations. Having come from a long line of physicians, Aristotle received training and education that inclined his mind toward the study of natural phenomena. This educationRead MoreAncient Greek Philosophers Who Have Helped Shape The World1350 Words   |  6 Pagestwenty centuries ago, Greek philosopher Aristotle laid out the foundations of Western culture. The principles of Greek philosophy implemented its way into encompassing a persons point of view or their knowledge on society. Aristotle has helped improve and transmuted the world by his views on ethics and virtues he has instructed and justified thoroughly and the endowment of philosophy and science, whereas he created a comprehensive system of subjects. Aristotle has laid out virtues, which is the importantRead MoreAristotle, The Man Of Thinking1025 Words   |  5 PagesAristotle, the Man of Thinking Aristotle is his name, philosophy is the game. Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and scientist who was born in Stagira Greece in 384 B.C. He lived to be 62 years old, which at the time, was a very good lifespan. Aristotle’s place of death was in Chalcis. His full name is Aristotle Stagiritis son of Nicomachus. He had a wife by the name of Hermias and a son with the name of Pythias. Aristotle is known well for teaching the world renowned man, referred to today as AlexanderRead MoreAristotle s Influence On Western Culture1511 Words   |  7 PagesAristotle, a greek philosopher, educator, and scientist, is known to be one of the most significant, and influential thinkers in Western culture. Aristotle was born in 384 B.C. in Stagira, a little town in northern Greece. Stagira is a Greek-Speaking town on the coast of the peninsula of Chalcidice. His father, Nicomachus, was a doctor, member of the guild of the Asclepiadae, and court physician to Amyntas II, and then became the king of Macedonia. Aristotle s mother was Phaestis, she is knownRead MoreAristotle And Aristotle On Education1262 Words   |  6 Pages2.2.2 Aristotle (384 – 322 BC) Another great influence on Education was the Greek philosopher and scientist Aristotle who came later after Confucius, who was born in Stagira, Chalcidice. Aristotle was first a student in Plato’s philosophy school for around twenty years. Later on he was a philosophy teacher in Atarneus which is located in Asia Minor. Aristotle is known for his school named â€Å"Lyceum† which is located in Athens, and he is also known for teaching Alexander the Great who can later. AccordingRead MoreGreek And Classical Greek Philosophy997 Words   |  4 Pages Classical Greek Philosophy A philosophy is the study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence, esp. when considered as an academic discipline. Greece was divided into several city-states, which ran separately and independent from each other. However, they shared commonalities, such as common ancestry, language, and festivals. Foreigners were all considered barbarians to the Greek. Greek Culture is reflected in today s Society in many ways. These ways include mathematicsRead MoreSocrates And Aristotle s Life1491 Words   |  6 Pagesphilosopher Aristotle is widely thought to have said, The ultimate value of life depends upon awareness and the power of contemplation rather than upon mere survival. The earliest accounts of human history chronicle the struggle for survival against all odds. It is therefore remarkable that roughly 2400 years ago the question of virtue was raised, let alone contemplated at great length, forming a foundation upon which Western philosophers build to the prese nt day. Socrates and Aristotle were twoRead MoreHistorical Events That Took Place During The Classical Period1458 Words   |  6 PagesWorld Literature I Historically Significant Influences of Aristotle During the Classical Period, 500-232 BCE, Greece was at the peak of its political and cultural achievement. This was also a time of war, most noteworthy being the vast empire created by Alexander the Great. In a period containing such an immense amount of historical significance there is no doubting that it had influenced the people born. Notorious philosopher Aristotle is no exception, contributing a great deal to the fields ofRead MoreAristotles Contributions to the World: An Analysis1368 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Aristotle Aristotle Introduction If liberty and equality, as is thought by some are chiefly to be found in democracy, they will be best attained when all persons alike share in the government to the utmost. Law is order, and good law is good order. Man is by nature a political animal. ~Aristotle Philosophers, historians, scientists, politicians and other professionals across many disciplines consider Aristotle to be one of the greatest and prolific figures of the civilization of Ancient

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Violence Of Feeling Is What Causes The Destruction Of The

Violence of feeling is what causes the destruction of the protagonists in George Gordon’s Manfred and Jane Austen’s Sense and Sensibility . A lack of propriety and a naà ¯ve notion of passion is what controls Marianne. When Marianne seeks to indulge in a relationship built on the idea of ‘passion’, she almost causes her complete destruction. Manfred, on the other hand, seeks his own destruction by allowing his incestual and narcissistic desire to control him. By allowing himself to engage in the incestual relationship with his sister, he is dictating his own destruction. Desire and passion are the driving attributes of the main characters I will discuss in this essay. Marianne has distinct ideas about passion and love, that it is†¦show more content†¦Her and Willoughby are both extreme characters with extreme desires which they indulge in without caution for the consequences that may occur. Marianne understands her emotions, admitting that Ã¢â‚¬Ë œhad I died, ¬- it would have been self-destruction’ proving that she revels in her own emotions to such an extent- she would have died from them. The emotion that she experienced was so intense it caused ‘self-destruction’. Both Marianne and Willoughby allow themselves to be controlled by their emotions, this is what draws them together. They feed of each other’s emotions and desires, creating a blaze which isn’t controlled. It’s only when Marianne stops indulging in Willoughby, and in the emotions, he causes, that she can control herself and recover. It is the excess of emotion that is the problem, rather than the feeling of emotion. Manfred’s version of love is based on the desire to possess. He lusts for what he shouldn’t want; an incestual relationship with his sister. Incest is an interesting desire as it is considered aberrant and unnatural in society. Manfred wants to possess the one thing that he is denied. He confes ses his evils. ‘The deadliest sin to love as we have loved’ . Completely aware that what he desires and what he wants is ‘the deadliest sin’, yet he still indulges in his desire. Arguably the only reason that he desires his sister is, simply, because he shouldn’t desire her. HeShow MoreRelatedThe Fight Club By Chuck Palahniuk1309 Words   |  6 PagesKoby Gordon Mr. Smith Senior English: Fight Club Essay 8 September 2014 Violence as a Coping Method In the novel Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk, what it means to be alive is examined through violent underground boxing rings, featured in cities around the world. The story follows an unnamed narrator, who lives a monotonous yet well off life, and his alter ego, Tyler Durden, a more freethinking and violent character, as he explores himself and the essence of living through participating in a fightRead MoreThe Road By Frank Mccarthy1274 Words   |  6 Pagesillustrating the fears of society and the violence that accompanies them. These fears at the time were most recently initiated by the attacks of 9/11 and the subsequent Iraq war and the resulting violence experienced both in America and around the world. McCarthy’s â€Å"The Road† is a worst-case scenario, in which the broad American view that we are invincible and our principles are infallible is challenged. And with the violence in today’s world and the powers of human destruction threatening the planet toda y,Read MoreReview Of Edgar Allan Poe s The Black Cat And Fall Of The House Of Usher 1451 Words   |  6 Pagesfigurative imprisonment, freakishness, and obsessive love, as factors causing violence and destruction in the lives of his characters. In the â€Å"Black Cat† the narrator tells us his story from the inside of his prison cell as he awaits his trial. The narrator’s imprisonment began in a figurative form, that of a disease called alcoholism. Upon introducing us into his life, the narrator explains, â€Å"But my disease grew upon me- for what disease is like Alcohol!-and at length even Pluto, who was now becomingRead MoreViolence Is Defined By Behavior Involving Physical Force1379 Words   |  6 PagesExplosions. What do all these words have in common? Harm. Injury. Destruction. Violence. Violence is defined by behavior involving physical force intended to hurt, damage, or kill someone or something. Did you know that this issue causes more than 1.6 million deaths worldwide each year? In fact, is one of the leading causes of death in all parts of the world for persons ages 15 to 44. There is a problem in the way human beings understand of the concept of violence. Many people believe that violence is directlyRead MoreThe Violence And Its Effects On The Lives Of Contemporary Native Generations Essay1400 Words   |  6 Pagespresent in the lives of contemporary Native generations. As far as Indigenous family dynamics, particularly the transmitter and receiver relationship between mother and daughter, intergenerational transmission of trauma via substance abuse, domestic violence, and identity implications can potentially result in suicide. First off, substance abuse can facilitate the transmission of trauma from mother to daughter. Whether the mother drinks throughout her pregnancy, drinks in the presence of her daughterRead MoreEssay on Abortion: More Harm than Good1209 Words   |  5 Pagesfeel as if they should have the right to chose either to bring life into this world or not. These women feel as if abortion will give them a sense of relief. What many of these pro-choicers dont realize is that abortion causes more destruction then relief. Mothers who chose to abort their baby dont realize the post abortion destruction aborting has. These Mothers see it as relief from having to give birth to an unwanted child. Yes, if women have an abortion she will not have to bring an unwantedRead MoreMarjane Satrapi s Persepolis And The War Between Iran And Iraq1258 Words   |  6 PagesIraq. The graphic novel centers around the daughter of an Iranian family, Marjane, who is an energetic and jubilant young girl at the beginning of the story.The revolution and other factors force her to mature quickly as she is influenced by violence, destruction, and the people surrounding her. Marjane’s growth and development throughout the book are greatly affected by the people around her, such as her parents and her friends.One instance is when Marjane has been spending time with her family sRead MoreHow Are Violent Video Games Affecting Young People? Essay911 Words   |  4 Pages â€Å"YOU SUCK!† â€Å"I killed him!† â€Å"Head shot!† These are just a few examples of dialogue spoken by children while they are playing violent video games. These video games might seem like harmless fun, but what if the violence in these games is affecting the behavior of young players interacting with others? In a society driven by technology, video games are becoming more popular each and everyday. People of all ages enjoy video games in their free time; these games allow the player to become an athleteRead MoreWilfred Owen Relationship Between Humanity And Nature1472 Words   |  6 PagesWilfred Owen presents the fractured relationship between humanity and nature in his Anthem for Doomed Youth poetry collection as the main casualty of war. To what extent do you agree? Wilfred Owen explores vividly throughout Anthem for Doomed Youth the relationship between man and nature as well as its development throughout the First World War. In the poems 1914, The show, and Spring offensive Owen emphasises that the negative impact the war has had to the previous harmony between the two is theRead MoreList Of Definitions Of Terrorism Essay969 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction Various theories exist that attempt to explain what drives terrorist behavior. While many of these studies cover a wide array of the proposed behavioral and psychological theories, this review focuses on five major themes that appear throughout the literature reviewed. These themes are: defining terrorism, the terrorist mindset, methods of identifying a potential terrorist, ways to detect terrorist activities prior to execution, and developing means to combat future acts of terrorism

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Gay Marriage Should Be Accepted And Respected - 932 Words

Homosexuality has become a significant factor among individuals in today’s society. Once a taboo that was never discussed, many people hid their sexual orientation. Now, homosexuality has become more common as newer generations have become more open-minded. The rise in the LGTB movement has allowed people to openly express their sexuality without being discriminated against. Although homosexuality has become more socially acceptable, some states still have anti-gay laws and there are numerous individuals who believe that gay marriage is harmful and unnatural. Hozier’s â€Å"Take Me to Church,† Demi Lovato’s â€Å"Really Don’t Care† and Macklemore’s â€Å"Same Love† demonstrate society’s discrimination of homosexuals and why homosexuality should be accepted and respected through the lyrics and images in the videos. The music videos â€Å"Take Me to Church† by Hozier, â€Å"Same Love† by Macklemore and â€Å"Really Don’t Care† by Demi Lovato portray how individuals should be able to fall in love with whomever they want, no matter to which sex. Andrew Hozier-Byrne, known professionally as Hozier is an Irish singer and songwriter from Bray, County Wicklow. Hozier was a struggling musician but his single â€Å"Take Me to Church† was a huge hit, topping charts around the world and number two in the U.S. Ben William Haggerty, known by his stage name Macklemore, is an American rapper. He often works with producer and DJ Ryan Lewis and the two have created many successful works together. Demi Lovato is an AmericanShow MoreRelated Let Gays Marry and Leave Marriage Alone Essay1278 Words   |  6 Pageswill summarize some of the key points from the essay, Let Gays Marry, by Andrew Sullivan, and the essay, Leave Marriage Alone, by William Bennett. Some of these main po ints are taken from mutual beliefs of both authors and others are derived from the opposing opinions of the two. The first summary of Andrew Sullivan’s essay is a reflection of Andrew Sullivan’s stance of the issue. The original essay was in favor of allowing same sex marriage in America. My summary will dictate some of the argumentsRead MoreThe Issue Of Same Sex Marriage1286 Words   |  6 Pagesrelationship that is â€Å"morally right†. When speaking on gay marriage, there are typically two views. To some it is just absouletly disgusting, and then to others it’s a beautiful thing. â€Å" Opponents of Same Sex Marriage say marriage is between a man and a woman and anything else is morally wrong( â€Å"At Issue : Same Sex Marriage†) As a human being , whose right is it to tell someone who they can and can not love. Sometimes people may disagree with gay marriage on a spiritual level, but who is to say one person’sRead MoreEssay on The Right to Same Sex Marriage1590 Words   |  7 PagesSame sex marriage is a highly controversial topic that has be en lingering in America for some time now. The American society prides itself in the provision of equal rights and opportunities to all, yet, homosexuals continue to be discriminated against and denied their rights to marriage. It is often believe that â€Å"marriage is a commitment between two people that love each other and want to share the rest of their life side by side. It is not measured by whether it is a man and a woman, or a coupleRead MoreHomosexual Articles On The Usa Vs. Saudi Arabia1537 Words   |  7 PagesUSA vs. Saudi Arabia. The word Gay originally derived from Germanic word that has a meaning of â€Å"joyful, carefree, happy, bright, and showy† in the 17th century. Around the 19th century the word Gay turned out to be referred to a woman who was a prostitute and a gay man was the man who slept with a lot of women (Hiskey). It could be sort of ironical today that a gay man doesn’t sleep with women and a gay woman (Lesbian) doesn’t sleep with men. By 1955, the word gay officially acquired the new addedRead MoreEssay about The Case for Gay Marriage1673 Words   |  7 Pagespolitical debate over the decisive issue of gay marriage forces us to rethink our commitment to those deliberate words. Throughout our history, America’s homosexual population has struggled against society to prove that they have the right to marry anyone they love, regardless of sex. Until only recently, in fact, the vast majority of Americans have held steadfast views against the legalization of gay marriage. But in the most recent decade, gay marriage activists have made significant progressRead MoreSocial Media And Social Movements1190 Words   |  5 Pagesfor activism it can expose people s conscious about diverse predicaments or movements occurring around the globe. In today s contemporary society people had the power to create a significant change in the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) community by having same sex marriage legalized in all 50 states. The hashtag #LoveWins became possible in the United States by social and physical activism which included engagement with social networks. For many decades the LGBT community have facedRead MoreSame Sex Marriages Should Be Legal1713 Words   |  7 PagesSame-sex marriages have a same gender identity or biological as gay and lesbian couples. Not a long time ago, people did not understand about gays, homosexualities, and these married situations. Therefore, they have many false ideas about gays and think homosexuality is against God and nature. After many years, gay people fought for same-sex rights and had many improvements in understanding these relations. Besides, more people had open minds to homosexuality and accepted gay marriages. AccordingRead MoreGeorge Chauncey, Why Marriage?1245 Words   |  5 PagesGeorge Chauncey, Why Marriage?: The History Shaping Today s Debate over Gay Equality, 2004 Nisha Chittal, Judges Chip Away at Florida Gay Marriage Ban,, July 26, 2014 Jeffrey M. Jones, Same-Sex Marriage Support Solidifies Above 50% in U.S.,, May 13, 2013 Stonewall Rebellion,, Apr. 10, 2009 Goldberg, Carey (February 10, 2000). Vermont Panel Shies From Gay Marriage. New York Times. Retrieved July 13, 2013. Read MoreMarriage is the most powerful way for couples to show their love. However, it will be unfair for1200 Words   |  5 Pages Marriage is the most powerful way for couples to show their love. However, it will be unfair for someone to try and negate the rights of married couples. Therefore, all types of marriages including gay marriages should be legalized since couples deserve equal rights and freedom. Opponents of gay marriage point out that it is against God’s laws, but they forget that the same Bible also promotes equality regardless of gender, race and religion. Moreover, if marriage is all about love, then thoseRead MoreEssay about Phi 103 Final Gay Marriage1230 Words   |  5 PagesUnderstanding Why Gay Marriage Should Be Legal PHI103 EraniaSmallwood Instructor Elisa Paik May 31,2013 Gay marriage should be legal because as woman and man, all individuals have the same right in society; because same-sex couples can constitute a good based family; because it is just a way to make official a common union nowadays, even with the religious issue; because it is not related to polygamy; and because love matters and it does not differ in nature according to

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Marketing Principle of Milo Singapore -

Question: Discuss the Marketing Principle of Milo Singapore. Answer: Nestle has provided quality products to the world for more than 9 decades. Their products are such that everybody in every corner of the world can rely upon. Nestles Milo is a product which know for providing energy and keeping children active throughout the day. When it comes to Milo Singapore, the brand very confidently talks about it being a product on which the consumers can rest upon (Min et. al. 2015). Such confidence has made the product a brand in itself and is popular among every age. This report sheds light on the marketing mix of Milo that it uses in Singapore. Marketing mix (7 Ps) 7 Ps Marketing Mix. (Min et. al. 2015) Product Nestle came into inception in 1934 and expanded throughout the world. In 2006, Milo from Nestle got awarded for its contribution towards good health. Within a years time, it introduced a concept of malt and milk in higher quantity, which helped children in gaining more energy. With chocolate taste, Nestle Milo got more famous and was liked by the consumers (Professional academy, 2015). They are continuously dedicated towards providing quality products to the consumers and come-up with new innovation every now and then. They give lot of options to the consumers to choose from, as they come in different sizes and range. As the product is made up of natural ingredients like milk, cocoa and malt, it calls for trust and satisfaction among its consumers. It constitutes of 8 types of vitamins and 4 different minerals which are essential for the growing body. The product is also made of Promomalt, which is basically a combination of various carbohydrates which provides energy to the body (Nestle 2016). Place Milo has a very good approach towards the storing and transforming the products as well as establishing a well-structured distribution of the products (Min et. al. 2015). The efficient and very effective manufacturing units which are placed at different locations increases the productivity and is very cost-effective. They basically use two channels for their product distribution, retailers and wholesalers, which work very smoothly and functions very effectively. The logistic system provides a great to and fro movement of the product which helps the product stay in the market all the time. Price The company uses ethnocentric, polycentric and penetration policy strategy when it comes to pricing. This helps them keep almost same price at different geographical locations, which keeps the consumers satisfied, pricewise. They try to reach out to as many customers as possible with their low pricing strategy. They also follow the concept of giving discounts on its products which are as per the location and locality. Promotion Milo supports as well as has sponsored quite a few number of life events like 1984 Milo Olympic display, 1978 Milo football training center etc. (Nestle 2016). For the promotion of the Milo product, Nestle used the strategy of associating Milo with energy. It also provides support to the local teams while participating in different games, both on national level and international level. The company also organized Milo Van in the year 1980 which was very much appreciated throughout the world. As the product is a combination of good health and energy, the Singapore health promotion board also awarded Milo with a much healthier endorsements and concepts. People Milo practices a system of shared understanding which helps the company in having a good image in terms of quality and concern. The people blindly trusts the brand. So, it is mainly given to the growing children for good health benefits. As they are more towards maintaining their quality, which is quite evident from its promotion, packaging and quality, this helps them in connecting with their customers ( 2016). So, not only children but even adults consume it widely throughout the world. Process They use various strategies for developing as well as designing their products so that best product could be provided to the customers in terms of quality and price. They practice a much advanced processing system, which helps them keep up with the continuous development of the product and promote it in such a way that it provides assurance. They continuously develop a network of strong distribution which helps them with their physical presence in every corner of their target market. Physical presence Nestle Milos products are distributed to the various wholesalers as well as retailers like Tesco, etc. References 2016.Segmentation Targeting And Positioning Of Nestle Marketing Essay. Min, C. H., Baker, J. A., Han, L. Yi Lim, J. 2015. Milo sold in Singapore is made here, no counterfeit problems, say Nestle and retailers. Nestle 2016.Home | Nestl Singapore. Professional academy, 2015. MARKETING THEORIES THE MARKETING MIX FROM 4 PS TO 7.

Thursday, April 9, 2020

Jeff Hendersons Life after Prison

Jeff Henderson’s memoir Cooked: My Journey from the Streets to the Stove describes a person’s struggle to climb the social ladder after the release from prison. To some degree, the book demonstrates that the author’s life after the release proved to be even more excruciating than in prison. In particular, he had to encounter such challenges as lack of trust and racial discrimination which undermined many of his efforts.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Jeff Henderson’s Life after Prison specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the whole, Jeff Henderson had to cope with various difficulties which made his life very frustrating. In particular, many employers had a very prejudiced attitude toward people who were sentenced for an offence. This conviction made them almost ineligible for any kind of job. This problem is familiar to many people who were sentenced to prison (Voorhis 72). This is why Jeff Henderson emphasizes the importance of gaining the trust of managers (Henderson 43). The main issue is that an individual abhors the idea of being at the mercy of others. To a great extent, these attitudes of others demonstrated to him that his criminal record would be as a constant barrier for him. This is one of the problems that the author is forced to encounter. Apart from that, one should not overlook the problem of racism. Many of the managers expected Jeff Henderson to deceive them. This is one of the most widespread racial stereotypes (King 7). This is one of the reasons they were reluctant to deal with him. The author describes their attitudes in the following way, â€Å"They had probably never seen anything like me: a black man who could really cook. I think they were expecting some hack† (Henderson 11). The narrator had to prove that his skills had outweighed the suspicions and concerns of employers. Moreover, other workers did not have to face these challeng es, especially if they were white. This is one of the points that should be considered. These examples show that Jeff Henderson had to cope with significant difficulties after his release from prison. Much attention should be paid to the prejudiced attitudes of many people focused on Henderson’s criminal record or race, but his skills. This attitude of people can be very frustrating for an individual. These are the main aspects that should be taken into account. Works Cited Henderson, Jeff. Cooked: My Journey From the Streets to the Stove, New York: Harper Collins, 2007. Print.Advertising Looking for essay on american literature? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More King, Lovalerie. Race, Theft, and Ethics: Property Matters in African American  Literature, Boston: LSU Press, 2007. Print. Voorhis, Patricia. Psychological Classification of the Adult Male Prison Inmate. New York: SUNY Press, 1994. Print. This essay on Jeff Henderson’s Life after Prison was written and submitted by user Ronald Nunez to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Monday, March 9, 2020

A Brief History of the KGB and Its Origins

A Brief History of the KGB and Its Origins If you grafted the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), added a few hefty tablespoons of paranoia and repression, and translated the whole megillah into Russian, you might wind up with something like the KGB. The Soviet Unions main internal and external security agency from 1954 until the breakup of the U.S.S.R. in 1991, the KGB wasnt created from scratch, but rather inherited much of its techniques, personnel, and political orientation from the greatly feared agencies that preceded it. Before the KGB: The Cheka, the OGPU  and the NKVD In the aftermath of the October Revolution of 1917, Vladimir Lenin, the head of the newly formed U.S.S.R., needed a way to keep the population (and his fellow revolutionaries) in check. His answer was to create the Cheka, an abbreviation of The All-Russian Emergency Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution and Sabotage. During the Russian Civil War of 1918-1920, the Cheka - led by the one-time Polish aristocrat Felix - arrested, tortured, and executed thousands of citizens. In the course of this Red Terror, the Cheka perfected the system of summary execution used by subsequent Russian intelligence agencies: a single shot to the back of the victims neck, preferably in a dark dungeon. In 1923, the Cheka, still under Dzerzhinsky, mutated into the OGPU (the Joint State Political Directorate Under the  Council of Peoples Commissars  of the U.S.S.R. - Russians have never been good at catchy names). The OGPU operated during a relatively uneventful period in Soviet history (no massive purges, no internal deportations of millions of ethnic minorities), but this agency did preside over the creation of the first Soviet gulags. The OGPU also viciously persecuted religious organizations (including the Russian Orthodox Church) in addition to its usual duties of rooting out dissenters and saboteurs. Unusually for a director of a Soviet intelligence agency, Felix Dzerzhinsky died of natural causes, dropping dead of a heart attack after denouncing leftists to the Central Committee. Unlike these earlier agencies, the NKVD (The Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs) was purely the brainchild of Joseph Stalin. The NKVD was chartered around the same time Stalin orchestrated the murder of Sergei Kirov, an event he used as an excuse to purge the upper ranks of the Communist Party and strike terror into the populace. In the 12  years of its existence, from 1934 to 1946, the NKVD arrested and executed literally millions of people, stocked the gulags with millions more miserable souls, and relocated entire ethnic populations within the vast expanse of the U.S.S.R. Being an NKVD head was a dangerous occupation: Genrikh Yagoda was arrested and executed in 1938, Nikolai Yezhov in 1940, and Lavrenty Beria in 1953 (during the power struggle that followed the death of Stalin). The Ascension  of the KGB After the end of World War II  and before his execution, Lavrenty Beria presided over the Soviet security apparatus, which remained in a somewhat fluid state of multiple acronyms and organizational structures. Most of the time, this body was known as the MGB (The Ministry for State Security), sometimes as the NKGB (The Peoples Commissariat for State Security), and once, during the war, as the vaguely comical-sounding SMERSH (short for the Russian phrase smert shpionom, or death to spies). Only after the death of Stalin did the KGB, or Commissariat for State Security, formally come into being. Despite its fearsome reputation in the west, the KGB was actually more effective in policing the U.S.S.R. and its eastern European satellite states than in fomenting revolution in western Europe or stealing military secrets from the U.S. (The golden age of Russian espionage was in the years immediately following World War II, before the formation of the KGB, when the U.S.S.R. subverted western scientists in order to advance its own development of nuclear weapons.) The major foreign accomplishments of the KGB included suppressing the Hungarian Revolution in 1956 and the Prague Spring in Czechoslovakia in 1968, as well as installing a Communist government in Afghanistan in the late 1970s; however, the agencys luck ran out in early 1980s Poland, where the anti-Communist Solidarity movement emerged victorious. All during this time, of course, the CIA and the KGB engaged in an elaborate international dance (often in third-world countries like Angola and Nicaragua),  involving agents, double agents, propaganda, disinformation, under-the-table arms sales, interference with elections, and nighttime exchanges of suitcases filled with rubles or hundred-dollar bills. The exact details of what transpired, and where, may never come to light; many of the agents and controllers from both sides are dead, and the current Russian government has not been forthcoming in declassifying the KGB archives. Inside the U.S.S.R., the attitude of the KGB toward suppressing dissent was largely dictated by government policy. During the reign of Nikita Khrushchev, from 1954 to 1964, a certain amount of openness was tolerated, as witnessed in the publication of Alexander Solzhenitsyns Gulag-era memoir One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich (an event that would have been unthinkable under the Stalin regime). The pendulum swung the other way with the ascension of Leonid Brezhnev in 1964, and, especially, the appointment of Yuri Andropov as the head of the KGB in 1967. Andropovs KGB hounded Solzhenitsyn out of the U.S.S.R. in 1974, turned the screws on the dissident scientist Andrei Sakharov, and generally made life miserable for any prominent figure even slightly dissatisfied with Soviet power. The Death (And Resurrection?) of the KGB In the late 1980s - partly because of the disastrous war in Afghanistan and partly because of an increasingly costly arms race with the U.S. - the U.S.S.R. began to fall apart at the seams, with rampant inflation, shortages of factory goods, and agitation by ethnic minorities. Premier Mikhail Gorbachev had already implemented perestroika (a restructuring of the economy and political structure of the Soviet Union) and glasnost (a policy of openness toward dissidents), but while this placated some of the population, it enraged hard-line Soviet bureaucrats who had grown accustomed to their privileges. As might have been predicted, the KGB was at the forefront of the counter-revolution. In late 1990,  then-KGB head Vladimir Kryuchkov recruited high-ranking members of the Soviet elite into a  tight-knit conspiratorial cell, which sprang into action the following  August after failing to convince Gorbachev to either resign in favor of its preferred candidate or declare a state of emergency. Armed combatants, some of them in tanks, stormed the Russian parliament building in Moscow, but Soviet President Boris Yeltsin held firm and the coup quickly fizzled out. Four months later, the U.S.S.R. officially disbanded, granting autonomy to the Soviet Socialist Republics along its western and southern borders and dissolving the KGB (along with all other Soviet governmental bodies). However, institutions like the KGB never really go away; they just assume different guises. Today, Russia is dominated by two security agencies, the FSB (The Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation) and the SVR (The Foreign Intelligence Service of the Russian Federation), which broadly correspond to the FBI and the CIA, respectively. More worrisome, though, is the fact that Russian President Vladimir Putin spent 15 years in the KGB, from 1975 to 1990, and his increasingly autocratic rule shows that he has taken to heart the lessons he learned there. Its unlikely that Russia will ever again see a security agency as vicious as the NKVD, but a return to the darkest days of the KGB is clearly not out of the question.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Accounting Standards Update 2014-09 Revenue from Contracts with Research Paper

Accounting Standards Update 2014-09 Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) - Research Paper Example the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) agreed upon modifying the existing standard of revenue recognition (Accounting Standards codification 605) in Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) and publish Accounting standards update 2014-09 (AICPA, 2014). The paper aims at understanding the implications of the update in context of revenue recognition in a broad manner. Alongside, it will also highlight impact of the new development in terms of improvement in financial reporting. Revenue is a very crucial element of the financial statement as it helps investors and other interested parties of an organisation in assessing the financial performance as well as position of the company with respect to others in an industry. It was observed that significant differences existed between revenue recognition principle of US GAAP and that of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). It was also ascertained that both the standards required certain improvements so as to improve the overall quality of financial reporting (Gallistel, et al., 2012). The previous revenue recognition guidelines in the US GAAP integrated broad concepts with various revenue requirements that were industry-specific; this process complicated the overall system of reporting. Contrastingly, IFRS revealed very limited information which made it difficult to account for complex transactions. The new revenue recognition guidance replaces transaction specific and industry specific revenue reco gnition measures with a principle based approach which is more specific in nature (Ernst & Young, 2014; PWC, 2014a). The boards, FASB and IASB, responded to the above mentioned challenges by developing a converged set of requirements that meet existing issues in US GAAP and IFRS. The guiding principle of the new standard aims at ensuring that companies recognise revenue for depicting transfer of goods and services to consumers in an amount which